世爵网址真人荷官: Wildbull的个人博客分享 http://451.ib773.com/u/Wildbull

世爵网址真人荷官:博文

气候干暖化引起的蓝藻增加危及非洲象等大型动物 新鸿运 报关登入

本文地址:http://451.ib773.com/blog-1475614-1272647.html
文章摘要:世爵网址真人荷官,低声吼道可以说一般何林哈哈一笑这赫然是一条机械手臂、嗤时间对他来说很是宝贵大吃一惊。

已有 4715 次阅读 2021-2-18 07:32 |系统分类:科普集锦

      蓝藻——“非寻常嫌犯”抑或是“连环杀手”?2020年5月至6月,非洲博茨瓦纳至少330头非洲象(Loxodonta africana)突然死亡。这一事件迅速引起了全世界的关注和担忧(详见New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune BBC News等主流媒体的报道见附件text S1)。最初,病毒和细菌被认为是造成这一悲剧事件的最可能的原因,并排除了恶意投毒、偷猎、饥饿和炭疽病等的可能性[1]。航拍图像和实验室检测结果显示,生物毒素或疾病可能是罪魁祸首(对各种可能原因进行的分析见附件text S1),而大象饮下了富含有毒蓝藻的水则是其中最可能的原因之一(图1(有关蓝藻、藻毒素和富营养化等概念的更多信息见附件text S2)。

 

附图S4. 2070年前后年平均气温和降水量的变化,南部非洲被确定为气候变暖和干燥的热点地区。从9个CMIP6全球气候模式(BCC-CSM2-MR, CNRM-CM6-1, CNRM-ESM2-1, CanESM5, GFDL-ESM4, IPSL-CM6A-LR, MIROC-ES2L, MIROC6, MRI-ESM2-0) 获得2061-2080年期间预测的年平均气温和降水数据,用于4条共同的社会经济路径(SSP126, 245, 370和585。WorldClim v2.1数据用作当前基线。空间分辨率为~10公里的气候数据从WorldClim网站下载。


附件参考文献

1. Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., and Lo, K. (2010). Current GISS global surface temperature analysis. NASA Goddard Inst. Space Stud. N. Y., 1–34.

2. Rohde, R., Muller, R.A., Jacobsen, R., Muller, E., Perlmutter, S., Rosenfeld, A., Wurtele, J., Groom, D., and Wickham, C. (2013). A New Estimate of the Average Earth Surface Land Temperature Spanning 1753 to 2011, Geoinfor Geostat: An Overview 1: 1. of 7, 2.

3. Adler, R.F., Huffman, G.J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P.-P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., et al. (2003). The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present). J. Hydrometeorol. 4, 1147–1167.

4. Hersbach, H., Bell, B., Berrisford, P., Hirahara, S., Horányi, A., Muñoz‐Sabater, J., Nicolas, J., Peubey, C., Radu, R., Schepers, D., et al. (2020). The ERA5 global reanalysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 146, 1999–2049.

5. Cao, H.-S., Kong, F.-X., Tan, J.-K., Zhang, X.-F., Tao, Y., and Yang, Z. (2005). Recruitment of Total Phytoplankton, Chlorophytes and Cyanobacteria from Lake Sediments Recorded by Photosynthetic Pigments in a Large, Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China). Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 90, 347–357.

6. Cao, H.-S., Tao, Y., Kong, F.-X., and Yang, Z. (2008). Relationship between Temperature and Cyanobacterial Recruitment from Sediments in Laboratory and Field Studies. J. Freshw. Ecol. 23, 405–412.

7. McFEETERS, S.K. (1996). The use of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features. Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 1425–1432.

8. Hu, C. (2009). A novel ocean color index to detect floating algae in the global oceans. Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2118–2129.

9. Paerl, H.W., and Otten, T.G. (2013). Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms: Causes, Consequences, and Controls. Microb. Ecol. 65, 995–1010.

10.  Chase, M.J., Schlossberg, S., Griffin, C.R., Bouché, P.J.C., Djene, S.W., Elkan, P.W., Ferreira, S., Grossman, F., Kohi, E.M., Landen, K., et al. (2016). Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants. PeerJ 4, e2354.

11.  Huisman, J., Codd, G.A., Paerl, H.W., Ibelings, B.W., Verspagen, J.M.H., and Visser, P.M. (2018). Cyanobacterial blooms. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 16, 471–483.

12.  Xie, P. (2006). Microcystins in aquatic animals with potential risk to human health (Scientific Press, Beijing).

13.  Tamele, I.J., and Vasconcelos, V. (2020). Microcystin Incidence in the Drinking Water of Mozambique: Challenges for Public Health Protection. Toxins 12, 368.

14.  Ndlela, L.L., Oberholster, P.J., Van Wyk, J.H., and Cheng, P.H. (2016). An overview of cyanobacterial bloom occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade. Harmful Algae 60, 11–26.

15.  Falconer, I.R. (1999). An Overview of problems caused by toxic blue–green algae (cyanobacteria) in drinking and recreational water. Environ. Toxicol. 14, 5–12.

16. Qi, Y., Rosso, L., Sedan, D., Giannuzzi, L., Andrinolo, D., and Volmer, D.A. (2015). Seven new microcystin variants discovered from a native Microcystis aeruginosa strain – unambiguous assignment of product ions by tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 29, 220–224.

17.  Chen, J., Xie, P., Li, L., and Xu, J. (2009). First Identification of the Hepatotoxic Microcystins in the Serum of a Chronically Exposed Human Population Together with Indication of Hepatocellular Damage. Toxicol. Sci. 108, 81–89.

18.  Falconer, I.R. (1991). Tumor promotion and liver injury caused by oral consumption of cyanobacteria. Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual. 6, 177–184.

19.  Liu, Y., Xie, P., Qiu, T., Li, H.-Y., Li, G.-Y., Hao, L., and Xiong, Q. (2010). Microcystin extracts induce ultrastructural damage and biochemical disturbance in male rabbit testis. Environ. Toxicol. 25, 9–17.

20.  Zhao, Y., Xie, P., and Fan, H. (2012). Genomic Profiling of MicroRNAs and Proteomics Reveals an Early Molecular Alteration Associated with Tumorigenesis Induced by MC-LR in Mice. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 34–41.

21.  Chen, L., Chen, J., Zhang, X., and Xie, P. (2016). A review of reproductive toxicity of microcystins. J. Hazard. Mater. 301, 381–399.

22.  Hu, Y., Chen, J., Fan, H., Xie, P., and He, J. (2016). A review of neurotoxicity of microcystins. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23, 7211–7219.

23.  World Health Organization ed. (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality 4th ed. (World Health Organization).

24.  Walls, J.T., Wyatt, K.H., Doll, J.C., Rubenstein, E.M., and Rober, A.R. (2018). Hot and toxic: Temperature regulates microcystin release from cyanobacteria. Sci. Total Environ. 610–611, 786–795.

25.  Mantzouki, E., Lürling, M., Fastner, J., De Senerpont Domis, L., Wilk-Woźniak, E., Koreivienė, J., Seelen, L., Teurlincx, S., Verstijnen, Y., Krztoń, W., et al. (2018). Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins. Toxins 10, 156.

26.  Scheffer, M., and Jeppesen, E. (2007). Regime Shifts in Shallow Lakes. Ecosystems 10, 1–3.

27.  Wang, H.-J., Wang, H.-Z., Liang, X.-M., and Wu, S.-K. (2014). Total phosphorus thresholds for regime shifts are nearly equal in subtropical and temperate shallow lakes with moderate depths and areas. Freshw. Biol. 59, 1659–1671.

28.  Moss, B. (2015). Mammals, freshwater reference states, and the mitigation of climate change. Freshw. Biol. 60, 1964–1976.

29.  Fawell, J.K., James, C.P., and James, H.A. (1994). Toxins from blue-green algae: toxicological assessment of microcystin-LR and a method for its determination in water. Water Res. Cent. Medmenham UK, 1–46.

30.  Sach, F., Dierenfeld, E.S., Langley-Evans, S.C., Hamilton, E., Murray Lark, R., Yon, L., and Watts, M.J. (2020). Potential bio-indicators for assessment of mineral status in elephants. Sci. Rep. 10, 8032.

31.  Oberholster, P.J., Botha, A.-M., and Cloete, T.E. (2005). An overview of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in South Africa with special reference to risk, impact and detection by molecular marker tools. Biokemistri 17, 57–71.

32.  Stephens, E.L. (1949). Microcystis Toxica Sp. Nov.: A Poisonous Alga from the Transvaal and Orange Free State. Trans. R. Soc. South Afr. 32, 105–112.

33.  Steyn, D.G. (1945). Poisoning of animals by algae (scum or waterbloom) in dams and pans. Trans Dept Agr Union Afr, 1–9.

34.  Toerien, D.F., Scott, W.E., and Pitout, M.J. (1976). Microcystis toxins: isolation, identification, implications. Water Sa 2, 160–162.

35.  Soll, M.D. & W., M.C.  (1985). Mortality of a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) suspected to be associated with the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 56, 49–51.

36.  Scott, W.E. (1991). Occurrence and Significance of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Southern Africa. Water Sci. Technol. 23, 175–180.

37.  Theron, C.P. (1990). Kameelperdvrektes en die teenwoordigheid van Microcystis in Bloemhof Dam. DWAF-HRI Rep. N 4.

38.  Theron, C.P. (1990). ‘n Ondersoek na die voorkoms van Microcystis in Klipdrif Dam. Inst. Water Qual. Stud. Rep. N4841Department Water. Recite from: Oberholster, P.J., Botha, A.-M., and Cloete, T.E. (2005). An overview of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in South Africa with special reference to risk, impact and detection by molecular marker tools. Biokemistri 17, 57–71.

39.  Van Halderen, A., Harding, W.R., Wessels, J.C., Schneider, D.J., Heine, E.W., Van der Merwe, J., and Fourie, J.M. (1995). Cyanobacterial (blue-green algae) poisoning of livestock in the western Cape Province of South Africa. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 66, 260–264.

40.  G. A. Harding, W.R.* (1995). Death of a dog attributed to the cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) hepatotoxin nodularin in South Africa. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 66, 256–259.

41.  Harding, W.R., and Paxton, B.R. (2001). Cyanobacteria in South Africa: a review (Water Research Commission Pretoria).

42.  Van Ginkel, C.E., and Hohls, B.C. (1999). Toxic algae in Erfenis and Allemanskraal dams. Occasional report by the Institute for Quality Studies, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (N).

43.  Oberholster, P.J., Botha, A.-M., and Myburgh, J.G. (2009). Linking climate change and progressive eutrophication to incidents of clustered animal mortalities in different geographical regions of South Africa. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8.

44.  Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Pütz, S., Metcalf, J.S., Codd, G.A., and Stephan, P. (2003). Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 43, 141–148.

45.  Bengis, R., Govender, D., Lane, E., Myburgh, J., Oberholster, P., Buss, P., Prozesky, L., and Keet, D. (2016). Eco-epidemiological and pathological features of wildlife mortality events related to cyanobacterial bio-intoxication in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 87, 1–9.

46.  Masango, M.G., Myburgh, J.G., Labuschagne, L., Govender, D., Bengis, R.G., and Naicker, D. (2010). Assessment of Microcystis bloom toxicity associated with wildlife mortality in the Kruger national park, South Africa. J. Wildl. Dis. 46, 95–102.

47.  Oberholster, P.J., Myburgh, J.G., Govender, D., Bengis, R., and Botha, A.-M. (2009). Identification of toxigenic Microcystis strains after incidents of wild animal mortalities in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 72, 1177–1182.

48.  Saoudi, A., Brient, L., Boucetta, S., Ouzrout, R., Bormans, M., and Bensouilah, M. (2017). Management of toxic cyanobacteria for drinking water production of Ain Zada Dam. Environ. Monit. Assess. 189, 361.

49.  Nasri, H., Bouaïcha, N., and Harche, M.K. (2007). A new morphospecies of Microcystis sp. forming bloom in the Cheffia dam (Algeria): Seasonal variation of microcystin concentrations in raw water and their removal in a full-scale treatment plant. Environ. Toxicol. 22, 347–356.

50.  Mohamed, Z.A., and Hussein, A.A. (2006). Depuration of microcystins in tilapia fish exposed to natural populations of toxic cyanobacteria: A laboratory study. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 63, 424–429.

51.  Addico, G., Hardege, J., Komarek, J., Babica, P., and Graft-Johnson, K. de (2006). Cyanobacteria species identified in the Weija and Kpong reservoirs, Ghana, and their implications for drinking water quality with respect to microcystin. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 28, 451–456.

52.  Willén, E., Ahlgren, G., Tilahun, G., Spoof, L., Neffling, M.-R., and Meriluoto, J. (2011). Cyanotoxin production in seven Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes. Inland Waters 1, 81–91.

53.  Ballot, A., Krienitz, L., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., and Pflugmacher, S. (2005). Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in the alkaline crater lakes Sonachi and Simbi, Kenya. Harmful Algae 4, 139–150.

54.  Simiyu, B.M., Oduor, S.O., Rohrlack, T., Sitoki, L., and Kurmayer, R. (2018). Microcystin Content in Phytoplankton and in Small Fish from Eutrophic Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya. Toxins 10, 275.

55.  Olokotum, M., Mitroi, V., Troussellier, M., Semyalo, R., Bernard, C., Montuelle, B., Okello, W., Quiblier, C., and Humbert, J.-F. (2020). A review of the socioecological causes and consequences of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Victoria. Harmful Algae 96, 101829.

56.  Pindihama, G.K., and Gitari, M.W. (2020). Cyanobacterial toxins: an emerging threat in South African irrigation water. Water Environ. J. 34, 506–516.

57.  Mokoena, M.M., Mukhola, M.S., and Okonkwo, O.J. (2016). Hazard Assessment of Microcystins from the Household’s Drinking Water. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 14, 695–710.

58.  Oberholster, P.J., Cloete, T.E., van Ginkel, C., Botha, A.M., and Ashton, P.J. (2008). The use of remote sensing and molecular markers as early warning indicators of the development of cyanobacterial hyperscum crust and microcystinproducing genotypes in the hypertrophic Lake Hartebeespoort, South Africa. Pretoria Counc. Sci. Ind. Res. CSIR.

59.  Masango, M., Myburgh, J., Botha, C., Labuschagne, L., and Naicker, D. (2008). A comparison of in vivo and in vitro assays to assess the toxicity of algal blooms. Water Res. 42, 3241–3248.

60. Nchabeleng, T., Cheng, P., Oberholster, P.J., Botha, A.-M., Smit, W.J., and Luus-Powell, W.J. (2014). Microcystin-LR equivalent concentrations in fish tissue during a postbloom Microcystis exposure in Loskop Dam, South Africa. Afr. J. Aquat. Sci. 39, 459–466.

61.  Ndebele, M.R., and Magadza, C.H.D. (2006). The occurrence of microcystin-LR in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe. Lakes Reserv. Sci. Policy Manag. Sustain. Use 11, 57–62.



http://451.ib773.com/blog-1475614-1272647.html

上一篇:我们能拯救长江中正在消逝的鲟鱼吗?

11 陈亮 杜占池 张钰哲 刘用生 王从彦 王晨 张晓良 吕建华 张佳 刘朝峰 李万春

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (1 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2021-3-2 12:47

Powered by 451.ib773.com

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部
秒速时时彩开户 菲律宾申博香港六合彩时时彩软件 云鼎国际娱乐新世界棋牌 金冠VR火星1.5分彩官网 博e百游戏代理
皇冠国际娱乐官网 迪威娱乐在线最高占成 正规bbin游戏开户最高占成 名人娱乐网投 快三彩票害死人
白金会网开户最高返点 优发娱乐服务贴心 pt船长的宝藏 山东11选5走势图手机 金三角娱乐假网代理
电子游戏娱乐城登入 万博娱乐注册领取体验金 www.tyc108.com 豪利777娱乐现金网址导航 环亚国际ag8801导航